“Aliens” in America: British Citizens during the War of 1812

Letter from Secretary of State James Monroe to Peter Curtenius, Marshal for the District of New York, October 21, 1812. Peter Curtenius Papers, MS 142.

Post written by Rachel Schimke, a spring intern at N-YHS who processed the Peter Curtenius Papers. 

This year marks the bicentennial of the War of 1812, a conflict that is often overshadowed by the more celebrated wars in our nation’s history. The newly processed Peter Curtenius Papers offer invaluable information for researchers interested in this lesser-known war, particularly the role that New York played in the conflict.

Curtenius was appointed U.S. Marshal for the District of New York by Thomas Jefferson in 1806. He served in this position until near the end of the War of 1812, at which time his successor John Smith took over. During their tenures as marshals, much of Curtenius and Smith’s duties involved overseeing British citizens living in New York. They corresponded often with the Department of State (led by James Monroe), receiving frequent instructions regarding these British “aliens.” A letter from James Monroe to Peter Curtenius on October 21, 1812, shortly after the outbreak of the war, requests that Curtenius order the nine British officers living in New York City to “retire forthwith into the country, to such place, not less than forty miles distant from the city… Should they refuse or decline to obey this order, you will take them into custody as prisoners of war.” The same letter also asks Curtenius to pay “very strict attention” to “all other alien enemies.”

Page two of Monroe’s letter to Curtenius, with Monroe’s signature. Peter Curtenius Papers, MS 142.

What did this “very strict attention” entail? As marshals, Curtenius and Smith were in charge of maintaining registers of the approximately 1,500 British citizens living in New York (about half of whom lived in New York City) during the War of 1812. Even British heads of households who had been living in New York for many years or had applied for naturalization were required to report to the marshal. One British resident, a 58-year-old man who was a weaver by trade, had lived in the United States for 35 years when he reported to Curtenius in September 1812. These registers, located in the Peter Curtenius Papers and the New-York Historical Society’s other War of 1812 manuscript collections, are rich in sociological information, as they list the names of the British “aliens,” their age, occupation, place of residence, length of time in the United States, their family/marital status, and whether they had applied for naturalization.

“Return to the Department of State of enemy aliens who have reported themselves to the Marshall of the District of New York”, MS 2049

Less than three decades after the United States became independent, our young nation once again found itself doing battle with Great Britain. As we acknowledge the 200th anniversary of the War of 1812, it is interesting to reflect back on how the conflict affected not just Americans on the home front, but their British neighbors, as well.



  1. Susan Nelson says

    Dear New-York Historical Society,

    Thank you for publishing the “Aliens in America” blog regarding the required registration of aliens during the War of 1812. I have been trying (for years) to figure out how the access the records that were collected at that time. My 3rd Great Grandfather, William Richie (sometimes spelled Richey or Ritchie), entered this country from (so family history says) Belfast, Northern Ireland, in approximately 1807, most likely entering through Philadelphia or New York. At various times, he lived in Herkimer, Saint Lawrence, Jefferson, and Niagara Counties and is buried (with his wife, Sarah) in Orangeport Union Cemetery (also known as Gaskill Cemetery). His first child, Mathew George Richie, was allegedly born in 1813 “along the banks of the St. Lawrence River.”

    Would it be possible for you to look up William Richie’s name in the New-York Historical Society’s other War of 1812 manuscript collections so that we might find out such information as his age, occupation, place of residence, length of time in the United States, family/marital status, and whether he had applied for naturalization? I am a serious researcher and would dearly love to learn more about my 3rd Great Grandfather. Thank you for any time and attention you put into this request. I would be happy to make a donation to the New York Historical Society in exchange for your efforts.


    Susan Nelson, Esq.
    Deputy Attorney General (Ret.)

  2. Sara A Straub says

    My ggg grandfather Moses Montefiore Ancona was a British citizen and arrived in Philadelphia about 1809. We understand that he stayed Philadelphia until the onset of the War of 1812 when he was required to move inland. He went to Berks County PA. I have made some attempts to find the Alien registration document at the NARA web site but could not find anything. Do you have any suggestions about how I might find any records about his registration? I appreciate any help you could give me.

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